"Ownership" and Empirical Research on The Auxiliary (Empty) Chair Technique

Treadwell, Thomas TTreadwell at wcupa.edu
Mon Feb 12 07:25:48 PST 2018


Are you sure of  this Cathy?


Rosemary Moreno


sure you did mean Rosemary Lippitt


Thomas Treadwell, Ed.D. T.E.P. C.G.P.
Department of Psychology
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West Chester University
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From: List <list-bounces at grouptalkweb.org> on behalf of cathynugent at verizon.net <cathynugent at verizon.net>
Sent: Sunday, February 11, 2018 9:54:42 PM
To: 'Grouptalk'
Subject: "Ownership" and Empirical Research on The Auxiliary (Empty) Chair Technique

Good evening, everyone:

Two points here: (1) Regarding the creation of the auxiliary (empty) chair: Check out this article:

Lippitt, R. (1958).  The auxiliary chair technique.  Group Psychotherapy, 11(1-2), 8-23.

This is a classic article about the empty chair, written in 1958 by Rosemary Lippitt. I also have a vague memory that either Rosemary Lippitt or Hannah Weiner taught the empty chair at Esalen. I think Bill Schutz (the creator of FIRO-B, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Inventory) wrote about the empty chair as coming from psychodrama, not Gestalt, in an old Esalen newsletter or something like that. (This is going back to the mid- 1970s.)

And from oral history, I just heard Rosemary Moreno give a plenary presentation (at the Taiwan Association for Psychodrama Conference) about her life with JL and Zerka. She talked about the fact that the empty chair was a part of her life with JL and Zerka, used in their home as well as on the psychodrama stage, from the time she was a little girl.

(2) Re. quantitative research on the empty chair: Several years ago, I looked at the work of Leslie Greenberg, the innovator of experiential psychotherapy, for empirical support for psychodrama. I was looking for some paper or presentation, I don’t remember which… I could be wrong, but I have a recollection of some simple research study by Greenberg and colleagues, done with a client/patient population. There was some kind of rating at the end of each or some psychotherapy sessions. Maybe they were looking at the correlation of client satisfaction and sessions that included empty chair work versus those that did not. Or maybe they explored client satisfaction and some specific feature of empty chair work at some or all sessions. I do recall that client satisfaction was the prime or maybe the only outcome measure. I have a clearer recollection that the session rating scales Greenberg used were similar to those used in the Duncan & Miller’s PCOMS model. This stands out in my mind because I thought comparing the Greenberg client satisfaction scales to the Duncan & Miller work might lend some strength to the Greenberg study because Duncan & Miller’s model is included in the SAMHSA National Registry of Evidence-Based Program and Practices. (Models listed in the NREPP have to meet a certain level of rigor in the ways they’ve been tested, as well as a number of other criteria. They are peer reviewed.)

I see two books on my shelf:
Greenberg, L. Watson, J. & Lietaer, G.  (1998), Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Greenberg, L. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

If I can find the reference to the research I am remembering, I will indicate which text and post the page numbers here. However, there is a possibility I didn’t see the research in this book at all, but maybe instead in a different Greenberg article or book chapter that I pulled from the Internet. It might be worth someone taking a look at Greenberg’s published articles mentioning the empty chair, if possible. Does anyone work with a doctoral student or have an assistant who might be able to do this? (smile)

If you do find this research on the empty chair or any other piece of quantitative research, please keep me up to date. It would be helpful for my teaching position with Hopkins. Since 2010, I’ve been teaching a one-credit, elective course, Role-Play & Related Methods in Counseling. I also integrate action methods throughout the teaching/learning model of the two other one-credit courses I teach. The three courses have been consistently very well received by students.

I am now working on a proposal to offer a new three-credit course, Advanced Group Methods: Psychodrama & Sociometry. The proposal is submitted to the Chair, Counseling Department (who is interested and supportive, mainly because the students like the introductory-level course), and then to the Chair & Members of the Curriculum Committee of the JHU School of Education. The Curriculum Committee consists of interdisciplinary faculty from across the programs in School, including mental health, school and career counseling. Most have published their own research in peer-reviewed journals and know nothing about psychodrama. For the strength of my proposal, I need more than student satisfaction indicators to make the case.

Citing empirical research published in chapters from scholarly books or peer-reviewed journals would be very helpful. If anybody has suggestions, please let me know. I would be grateful for your help.

Oh, I definitely like the idea of keeping a list of citations for published books and articles related to a particular psychodrama topic, such as empty chair! Would be very useful.

Warm wishes to all,
Cathy


From: Members [mailto:members-bounces at asgpplistserv.org] On Behalf Of Linda Ciotola via Members
Sent: Sunday, February 11, 2018 11:50 AM
To: Bill Wysong <iqwysong at gmail.com>
Cc: Karen Carnabucci <realtruekaren at gmail.com>; Rebecca Walters <hvpi at hvpi.net>; List Serve ASGPP <members at asgpplistserv.org>; Tian Dayton <tian at tiandayton.com>
Subject: Re: Research...

Zerka showed me in person the letter Perls wrote JL acknowledging  that he learned empty chair from him
Warm regards to all ,
Linda Ciotola

Sent from my iPhone

On Feb 11, 2018, at 11:24 AM, Bill Wysong via Members <members at asgpplistserv.org<mailto:members at asgpplistserv.org>> wrote:
Though not research, Zerka stated that the empty chair technique is from Psychodrama. You can review her comments about it and Fritz Perls in The Quintessential Zerka, Article 30, "Psychodrama, Role Theory and the Concept of the Social Atom" page 222. This is an important information about the ownership of psychodrama techniques.

The book was edited by Toni Horvatin and Edward Schreiber. Perhaps Toni and Ed will scan Zerka's comments for those who do not have the book. The book is available on Amazon and would be a good addition to your library.

I vaguely recall that a psychodramatist (don't know who) wrote a book about Psychodrama and misattributed the empty chair to Gestalt; causing a lot of confusion.


Bill Wysong, MA, LPC, EMDR II, TEP
Aspen Counseling Center
611 N. Nevada
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
(719) 632-0771

www.AspenCounseling.com<http://www.AspenCounseling.com>
iqwysong at gmail.com<mailto:iqwysong at gmail.com>
www.PsychodramaCompanion.blogspot.com<http://www.PsychodramaCompanion.blogspot.com>

On Sun, Feb 11, 2018 at 6:37 AM, Tian Dayton via Members <members at asgpplistserv.org<mailto:members at asgpplistserv.org>> wrote:
Connie Lawrence did an article with some research on my RTR Relational Trauma Repair model…empty chair is part of it…..you might ck with her….


On Feb 10, 2018, at 4:44 PM, Rebecca Walters via Members <members at asgpplistserv.org<mailto:members at asgpplistserv.org>> wrote:

Thank you to everyone who replied to my inquiry. There are many, many wonderful descriptions of empty chair work in many journals, books and of course in our own psychodrama literature. The problem is that what was requested was actual research from peer reviewed journals. Frankly, I think Workshop participants would benefit more from descriptions, demonstration  and practice then my going over research but I am finding, as I'm trying to bring psychodrama two other modalities and methods, presenting actual research is required.
Rebecca Walters
Hudson Valley Psychodrama Institute
156 Bellevue Rd Highland, NY 12528
WWW.HVPI.NET<http://www.hvpi.net/>
845/255-7502<tel:(845)%20255-7502>

On Feb 10, 2018 3:33 PM, "Tian Dayton" <tian at tiandayton.com<mailto:tian at tiandayton.com>> wrote:
This is great Karen and I agree with both of you that having these on the ASGPP website would be great….

I have a small write up of the empty chair in The Living Stage

Here is something from Scott Kellog who teaches at NYU

Transformational chair work<http://transformationalchairwork.com/articles/transformational-chairwork/>
transformationalchairwork.com/articles/transformational-chairwork/<http://transformationalchairwork.com/articles/transformational-chairwork/>
1.
2.
by S Kellogg - ‎Related articles<https://scholar.google.com/scholar?rlz=1C5CHFA_enUS725US725&um=1&ie=UTF-8&lr&q=related:Z2l8_fwRXfS7cM:scholar.google.com/>
In re-working traumatic or abusive situations, patients will imagine the abusive person sitting in thechair opposite them. They can then express their anger at how they were treated, their grief about what it cost them, and their determination to no longer let it affect their life in the way that it has (Goulding & Goulding, 1997).


On Feb 10, 2018, at 3:16 PM, Karen Carnabucci via Members <members at asgpplistserv.org<mailto:members at asgpplistserv.org>> wrote:

Hi Rebecca:

Counseling Today magazine (not quite a journal, but still) has Marvin Knittel's article on the empty chair here:

http://www.counseling.org/resources/library/Counseling%20Today/April2010CTOnline.pdf

The Arts in Psychotherapy mentions the empty chair here:

http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8164/a77469540d395b9f28a7d816928fb8b32367.pdf

The Journal of Family Therapy mentions the empty chair as one of three techniques for family therapy:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j..1986.00733.x/abstract

The International Review of Education mentions the empty chair:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j..1986.00733.x/abstract

It would certainly be a great advantage to have some of these research articles and links on the ASGPP website for easy access as we market our work, make proposals, etc.

P.S. And I know that you know my book "Show and Tell Psychodrama" has a short chapter on the empty chair as well:

http://www.amazon.com/Show-Tell-Psychodrama-Therapists-Teachers/dp/0615985777/ref=la_B004WH4HIS_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1516115823&sr=1-1

Karen Carnabucci, MSS, LCSW, TEP

Alternative psychotherapy, training & classes
Lancaster, PA

+1 (717) 466-0788<tel:(717)%20466-0788>
www.realtruekaren.com<http://www.realtruekaren.com/>

From: List [mailto:list-bounces at grouptalkweb.org] On Behalf Of Rebecca Walters
Sent: Saturday, February 10, 2018 2:48 PM
To: grouptalk
Subject: Research...

I have offered to present at a mental health counseling conference in Albany on the use of the empty chair as a warm up for group work. They are claiming they cannot offer CE for this unless I can provide research backing up the presentation.

Does anyone know of any journal references for research into the use of warm ups in general and/or empty chair is particular?

Wouldn't it be nice if we could pull together a list of a couple dozen research articles people could use to fulfill requests like this? I am sure I am not the only one who has been asked this.

Rebecca Walters
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Please join us for our 76th Annual Conference, on April 19-22, 2018 at Crowne Plaza North Dallas, in Dallas, TX. Visit http://www.asgpp.org for more information.

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Expanding Horizons: Using Action Methods to Join All Humanity -

Please join us for our 76th Annual Conference, on April 19-22, 2018 at Crowne Plaza North Dallas, in Dallas, TX. Visit http://www.asgpp.org for more information.

If you'd like to unsubscribe or receive your emails in Digest mode once a day, please send an email to listmods at asgpplistserv.org<mailto:listmods at asgpplistserv.org> with your request.  Please allow a few hours for results.
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